Post-traumatic Education

Education 

 Center for Disease and Control (https://emergency.cdc.gov/coping/index.asp)

Provides information and resources in coping with a disaster or traumatic event

National Institute of Health ​​ (https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml) 

Provides education on symptoms, risk factors, treatments, therapies and studies. 

Veterans Affairs: National Center for PTSD  for General Public (https://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/index.asp)

The National Center for PTSD is dedicated to research and education on trauma and PTSD. They have developed a section for

the general public. 

NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness (https://www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/Mental-Health-Conditions/Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder) NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation’s largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness.

National Cancer Institute  (https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/coping/survivorship/new-normal/ptsd-pdq#_1)

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is the federal government's principal agency for cancer research and training.

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Post-traumatic Treatments

Source: NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness

When people experience, or are exposed to, trauma, their biological and psychological responses can be intense and painful. Many people will then move on with their lives with few or no symptoms, but for some, the intensity and pain remain. It can be difficult to make the decision to seek help since it's common to feel like we should just "get over" the experience.

There are several well-studied treatment approaches to address the symptoms of PTSD. The best treatment plan should include your preferences while also addressing any other co-existing conditions you may have.

Medications alone are unlikely to heal the psychological wounds of trauma and may also create side effects. Most people find a combination of two approaches—psychotherapy and medication—yields the best results.

Receiving support and compassion immediately after a traumatic event is also critical. Some people will want to talk about the event, while others will find it troubling and overwhelming. It’s not helpful to force anyone to discuss a traumatic event until they are ready.

Psychotherapy

There are many different types of psychotherapy. Some psychotherapy approaches involve returning your attention to the traumatic event and can be provocative and challenging. However, when they are done well as part of a coordinated treatment approach they often result in fewer symptoms.

Research indicates that there are several therapeutic approaches that are more effective than others in addressing the symptoms of PTSD:

  • Cognitive Processing Therapy is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that works to address the negative thinking and self-blame symptoms that may come with having PTSD . There is specific training for the psychotherapist and materials to guide this treatment.

  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was specifically designed to treat trauma. This therapy uses measured exposure to traumatic memories with alternating stimuli (eye movements are one of several options) in structured sessions with a health care professional certified to perform EMDR.

  • Exposure Therapy is a type of psychotherapy that enables a skilled practitioner to help people safely face what they find traumatizing so they can learn to cope effectively. One technique used in exposure therapy involves virtual reality programs that allow a person to experience the situation in which they experienced trauma to help process it.

  • Group Therapy with others who have similar experiences can help build resilience when someone feels alone and isolated. Group therapy helps lessen shame and provide support, as well as reduce feelings of helplessness. Groups for survivors of sexual assault and combat experiences frequently have members living with PTSD and related symptoms.

Ask your therapist if they are familiar with, or have been trained in, these specific techniques. If their answer is no, ask what approach they use in trauma psychotherapy. There are other effective approaches, but it is helpful to understand your health care professional’s experience in addressing PTSD. Consider asking your therapist, primary care doctor or health plan provider for a referral to a specialist in these treatments if you conclude they are the best match for you.

Medications

There is no one medication that treats all the symptoms of PTSD, yet some medications can help with some symptoms and also increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy. When selecting a medication, you should also consider the presence of any other conditions such as depression or anxiety and how they may be impacted.

  • Antidepressants can be useful to help reduce symptoms of PTSD. Some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of PTSD in adults and are often the first line of treatment. Be sure to be informed about medication uses and side effects, and ask your doctor about the latest research in this field.

  • Other medication approaches are also available, although some are not FDA-approved specifically for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Ask your doctor for more information about all medication options available.

  • Other biological interventions. Many states that have legalized marijuana for medical use, and it includes an indication for PTSD. To date, there has not been a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of marijuana for PTSD, so it’s difficult to assess its potential viability as a treatment. Research is also underway to assess the potential use of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to augment psychotherapy for PTSD. MDMA is currently not legal in the U.S.

Complementary Health Approaches

Recently, many health care professionals have begun to include complementary and alternative methods into treatment regimens. Some methods that have been used for PTSD include:

  • Yoga

  • Aqua therapy

  • Acupuncture

  • Mindfulness and meditation strategies and practices

Service dogs are another option for non-traditional therapy for people experiencing PTSD. A service dog is by a person’s side 24 hours a day to help navigate daily stressors. Most animals come to the person pre-trained with a set of commands. The owner can rely upon the dog for help and as a reality grounding tool, which can help prevent a re-experience or other symptoms. These animals can also serve as a social buffer, an incentive to exercise and a de-escalation tool during times of stress.

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Cancer Related-Post-traumatic Stress

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Source: National Cancer Institute  

Cancer-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe.

Symptoms of cancer-related post-traumatic stress may be triggered when certain smells, sounds, and sights are linked with chemotherapy or other treatments.

Post-traumatic stress symptoms develop by conditioning.

Conditioning occurs when certain triggers become linked with an upsetting event. Neutral triggers (such as smells, sounds, and sights) that occurred at the same time as upsetting triggers (such as chemotherapy or painful treatments) later cause anxiety, stress, and fear even when they occur alone, after the trauma has ended.

 Patients have a range of normal reactions when they hear they have cancer. These include:

  • Repeated frightening thoughts.

  • Being distracted or overexcited.

  • Trouble sleeping.

  • Feeling detached from oneself or reality.

Patients may also have feelings of shock, fear, helplessness, or horror. These feelings may lead to cancer-related post-traumatic stress (PTS), which is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a specific group of symptoms that affect many survivors of stressful events. These events usually involve the threat of death or serious injury to oneself or others. People who have survived military combat, natural disasters, violent personal attack (such as rape), or other life-threatening stress may suffer from PTSD. The symptoms for PTS and PTSD are a lot alike, but most cancer patients are able to cope and don't develop full PTSD. The symptoms of cancer-related PTS are not as severe and don't last as long as PTSD.

Cancer-related PTS can occur anytime during or after treatment.

Patients dealing with cancer may have symptoms of post-traumatic stress at any point from diagnosis through treatment, after treatment is complete, or during possible recurrence of the cancer. Parents of childhood cancer survivors may also have post-traumatic stress.

This summary is about cancer-related post-traumatic stress in adults, its symptoms, and its treatment.

Factors That Affect the Risk of Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PTS)

KEY POINTS

  • Certain factors may make it more likely that a patient will have post-traumatic stress.

    • Physical factors

    • Psychological, mental and social factors

  • Certain protective factors may make it less likely that a patient will develop post-traumatic stress.

  • Symptoms of cancer-related post-traumatic stress may be triggered when certain smells, sounds, and sights are linked with chemotherapy or other treatments.

Certain factors may make it more likely that a patient will have post-traumatic stress.

It is not completely clear who has an increased risk of cancer-related post-traumatic stress. Certain physical and mental factors that are linked to PTS or PTSD have been reported in some studies:

Physical factors

Psychological, mental and social factors

Certain protective factors may make it less likely that a patient will develop post-traumatic stress.

Cancer patients may have a lower risk of post-traumatic stress if they have the following:

  • Good social support.

  • Clear information about the stage of their cancer.

  • An open relationship with their healthcare providers.

 

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